Unemployment in California at 12%, Highest in Nearly 70 Years


Published: September 18, 2009

LOS ANGELES — California’s unemployment rate in August hit its highest point in nearly 70 years, starkly underscoring how the nation’s incipient economic recovery continues to elude millions of Americans looking for work.

While job losses continue to fall, the new unemployment rate — 12.2 percent, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics — is far above the national average of 9.7 percent and places the country’s largest state fourth behind Michigan, Nevada and Rhode Island.Statistics kept by the state show California’s unemployment rate was 14.7 percent in 1940, according to Kevin Callori, a spokesman for the California Employment Development Department.While California has convulsed under the same blows as the rest of the country over the last two years, its exposure to both the foreclosure crisis and the slowdown in construction — an industry that has fueled growth in much of the state over the last decade — has been outsized.

Total building levels in California have fallen from $63 billion in 2005 to $23 billion this year; home building this year is less than a quarter of what it was in 2005, according to the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. Roughly 500,000 of the state’s job losses have been in construction, finance, real estate and ancillary industries related to construction, which has left thousands searching for work.

“We were at the epicenter of the housing bubble and we are at the epicenter of the fallout,” said Stephen Levy, senior economist and director of the center. “The reason we are doing worse in California than other states is construction.”

While California has enjoyed some signs of a comeback in recent months, unemployment, which is often the last economic indicator to turn around in a protracted recession, is expected to remain high in the state in the near future. For example, a recent study by the University of California in Los Angeles predicted that while the state will enjoy 2 percent quarterly growth in 2010, the unemployment rate would remain above 10 percent.

Such numbers have caused deep pain to a state overly reliant on personal income taxes to balance its budget. The stock market crash, which greatly reduced personal wealth in the state, and job losses related to the housing bust combined to smash that revenue line.

In July, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed a budget that closed a roughly $24 billion two-year gap with extensive cuts to social services, parks and education. This has left the state with large numbers of people without jobs seeking government services in a reduced state, further pressing its resources, and further weakened potential consumer spending among laid off and furloughed government workers.

The governor seized on California’s grim milestone Friday to make a case for his current pet projects — revising the state’s tax system, fixing its broken water system, which has contributed to unemployment in the state’s farm regions, and tapping the federal government for all he can get.

“The latest unemployment numbers reinforce the importance of combining federal, state and local efforts to put Californians back to work and to help all those struggling in this difficult economy,” Mr. Schwarzenegger said. “Immediately addressing our challenges, which include reforming the state’s antiquated tax structure and updating our water delivery system will move the state forward and build a stronger, more diverse economy. While I am pleased to see fewer jobs lost, my administration will not rest until job growth resumes and employment returns to normal.”

Earlier this week, Federal Reserve Chairman Ben S. Bernanke proclaimed that the country was emerging from its protracted recession, and doubtlessly, California is showing its own signs of recovery: In Southern California, the center of the housing bust, home sales rose 11 percent in August from a year earlier, and prices have begun to tick up as well; the state’s exports are once again growing as international economics, particularly in Asia, have begun to recover and create demand for goods and layoffs have slowed statewide.

“Any economist would tell you we’re in a recovery,” Mr. Levy said. “Job losses are lessening, the GDP is rising, the housing market is stabilizing, and have you looked at the stock market lately? But the unemployment rate is the thing families care about. They don’t care about GDP or China coming back, they care about jobs


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Ejemplo de mapa mental

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Vínculos a planes de negocio






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1. Que es un Agente Aduanal?

El Agente Aduanal es la persona física autorizada por la Secretaría de Hacienda, mediante una patente, para promover por parte de otra persona, el despacho de las mercancías que entran y salen del país. En México es necesario contar con los servicios de un Agente Aduanal para importar y exportar productos.

2. Que necesito para importar a México?

a) Estar inscrito en el padrón de importadores, y en su caso, en el padrón específico.

b) Enviar una carta de encomienda dirigida al Servicio de Administración Tributaria y otra al Agente Aduanal.

c) Contar con una factura comercial.

d) Certificado de origen de la mercancía. e) Manifestación de Valor de la mercancía.

f) Contar con documentos que comprueben el cumplimiento de todas las restricciones no arancelarias, en caso de que existan.

3. Cuanto me sale importar mi mercancía?

Existen diferentes elementos para determinar el costo para importar una mercancía. Dependiendo del origen de la mercancía y de la clasificación arancelaria se determinan los impuestos al comercio exterior que hay que pagar. También existen gastos fijos relacionados con el despacho de la mercancía que se deberán cubrir. Por prestar sus servicios el Agente Aduanal cobra sus honorarios conforme al valor de la mercancía y la dificultad de la operación.

4. Que es un arancel? Es un derecho que se paga por importar o, en caso de que aplique, exportar mercancías al territorio nacional. Estas se establecen en la Ley del Impuesto General de Importación y Exportación.

5. Todas las importaciones pagan IVA? Con excepción a un listado que publica la Secretaría de Hacienda y de las importaciones temporales, todas las importaciones en forma definitiva pagan el 15% de IVA al interior del país y 10% a la franja fronteriza.

6. Que necesito para hacer una exportación?

a) Enviar una carta de encomienda dirigida al Agente Aduanal.

b) Contar con una factura comercial

c) Un manifiesto de embarque.

7. Que es una carta de encomienda?

Es un documento que autoriza al Agente Aduanal ante la Secretaría de Hacienda para promover el despacho aduanero de mercancías de personas físicas y morales.

8. Que datos deberá contar la factura de importación?

a) Domicilio físico del proveedor y su identificación fiscal (Tax ID)

b) Nombre y domicilio del importador

c) Descripción de la mercancía

d) Valor total de la mercancía

9. Que datos deberá contar la factura de exportación?

a) Nombre, domicilio y RFC del exportador

b) Datos del distribuidor en el extranjero c) Descripción de la mercancía d) Valor de la mercancía

10. Que es un certificado de origen?

Es un documento que comprueba el origen de las mercancías que se importan a México. De tal forma que si son de países con los que México tiene suscrito Tratados de Libre Comercio podrán gozar de preferencias arancelarias.

11. Que es un Tratado de Libre Comercio Un Tratado de Libre Comercio es un acuerdo internacional que México suscribe con otros países para fomentar el intercambio entre sí. Estos Tratados disminuyen las barreras arancelarias y no-arancelarias por etapas hasta llegar a un punto que se eliminan por completo, permitiendo el flujo libre de mercancías entre los países involucrados.

12. Cuantos Tratados de Libre Comercio tienen México? México tiene 11 acuerdos con 32 países, que son: Estados Unidos y Canadá La Unión Europea (Alemania, Francia, Italia, España, Portugal, Inglaterra, Irlanda, Holanda, Bélgica, Luxemburgo, Grecia, Austria, Suecia, Finlandia, y Dinamarca) La Asociación Europea de Libre Comercio (Suiza, Islandia, Liechtenstein y Noruega) Israel Chile Costa Rica Colombia y Venezuela (G3) Guatemala, El Salvador y Honduras (Triangulo del Norte) Bolivia Nicaragua Uruguay

13. Que es PITEX? El Programa de Importación Temporal para Producir Artículos de Exportación (PITEX) es un programa que autoriza la Secretaría de Economía de fomento a las exportaciones, mediante el cual se permite a los productores de mercancías destinadas a la exportación, importar temporalmente diversos bienes para ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos de exportación, sin cubrir el pago del impuesto general de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y de las cuotas compensatorias, en su caso.

14. Que es Maquila? Es un programa que autoriza la Secretaría de Economía mediante el cual se permite a los productores de mercancías destinadas a la exportación, importar temporalmente los bienes necesarios para ser utilizados en la transformación, elaboración y/o reparación de productos de exportación, sin cubrir el pago de los impuestos de importación, del impuesto al valor agregado y, en su caso, de las cuotas compensatorias. Asimismo, para realizar aquellas actividades de servicio que tengan como finalidad la exportación o apoyar a ésta.

15. Que es PROSEC ? Los Programas de Promoción Sectorial (PROSEC) es un instrumento creado por la Secretaría de Economía dirigido a personas morales productoras de determinadas mercancías, mediante los cuales se les permite importar con aranceles preferenciales (entre 0% y 5%) diversos bienes para ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos específicos, independientemente de que las mercancías a producir sean destinadas a la exportación o al mercado nacional.

16. Que es Drawback?

La Devolución de Impuestos de Importación a los exportadores (Drawback) es un instrumento creado por la Secretaría de Economía de promoción a las exportaciones, mediante el cual se reintegra al exportador el valor de los impuestos causados por la importación y posterior exportación de: a) materias primas, partes y componentes, empaques y envases, combustibles, lubricantes y otros materiales incorporados al producto exportado b) por la importación de mercancías que se retornan al extranjero en el mismo estado en que fueron importadas y c) mercancías importadas para su reparación o alteración.


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Balanza comercial registra déficit de mil 275 mdd en julio

5:15 La balanza comercial de México mostró en julio pasado un déficit de mil 275 millones de dólares, ligeramente mayor a los mil 215 millones del mismo periodo del año pasado, informó el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) .

Este saldo es resultado de una baja en las exportaciones totales de 34.7% a tasa anual, que se originó principalmente por reducciones en las ventas externas petroleras de 51.2% y de 30.2% en las no petroleras.

En tanto, las importaciones reportaron una contracción de 33.1% en julio pasado, de acuerdo con información oportuna del organismo.

En los primeros siete meses del año, el déficit de la balanza comercial del país sumó dos mil 485 millones de dólares, saldo inferior al registrado en el mismo periodo de 2008, de tres mil 728 millones, una baja de 33.3% a tasa anual.


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Plan de negocios para la exportación

Pueden descargar de sde este vínculo el plan. Pag. 166-176


En la siguiente página pueden descargar diferentes publicaciones relevantes para la materia que publica PROMEX:


Especialmente recomiendo la guiía del exportador:


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Mexico 2009: Stimulus, Security and Neighbourly Assistance

This week brought some ever-growing attention on Mexico. With the decline in commodity prices as well as a sharp decline in consumer spending, the BBC World Service highlighted Felipe Calderon’s announcement to add to Mexico’s stimulus package and place an additional $150 million US dollars into Mexico’s export industries to keep them afloat. America’s neighbours were quick to address issues regarding export industries. The Canadian government was able to beat Bush and Obama to the punch by promising US automakers in Canada part of an auto industry support package with conditions in order to keep the 20% of North America’s auto industry within Canada’s largest province, Ontario and ensure future jobs for the large minority of Ontario’s workforce that are linked to autos. Mexico, while promising $150 million to its export industries will likely have a harder time pushing in billions of dollars like its neighbours into one industry. While Mexico in recent years has been a mark of economic stability in Latin America, the recent security situation in Mexico this past year and activities by the US to stop Mexico from becoming the next Drug War has pushed the US to form a smaller version of a Plan Colombia, spending millions on anti-narcotics support and advice for Mexico and Calderon’s administration. With the election of Mr. Obama as President comes the realization that he could have inherited one of the worst State of the Union’s in American history. The only person who could likely have a tougher job however is Felipe Calderon, as the economic crisis consumes Mexico’s well earned reserves and the export oriented economy becomes mired in the future losses of its main export market, one of the worst security situations in Mexican history has come at a time when there is little money to fight it. In addition, many of Mexico’s drug cartels have made a point of attacking government officials, killings many top officials and having others being caught in bribery scandals which could leave Calderon with as much security problems as economic. Some positive developments in the last few years may not stop Mexico’s worries, but has prepared Mexico with economic policies that might help Mexico and many other Latin American states weather the economic problems with development strategies that would be the envy of the world’s economic policy experts. Economic crisis have hit Latin America on average every 10 years since the 1970s and growth in countries such as Mexico and Brazil have placed them in the best position possible in a bad situation. With Mexico’s security situation finally coming on America’s radar screen in the past month, developments in Mexico in the last few years has likely opened a dialogue with similar neighbours such as Brazil who has had much success in its economic reforms and is poised to weather this economic crisis with stable growth for the future. In a January 7th FT.com article by Nick Rice, Brazil’s economic policies in the recent past has not been able to remove Brazil from the global crisis, but has placed it in a good position to weather the storm. Policies enabling Brazil to grow with commodity exports, conservative lending and well run industries has enabled Brazil to take advantage of slow growth rates and shield Brazil from the ills of excess lending and a lack of diversification. While Mexico differs from Brazil due to its close export relationship with the US and its dependence on oil revenues, the formula for economic growth is likely a topic of much dialogue between Mexico, Brazil and the rest of Latin America. With the future of Mexico’s security and economy likely to change greatly with the opening of world credit markets, the stabilization of oil prices and assistance from its neighbours in combating drug cartels and addressing issues of economic reforms, leadership, while an almost impossible job, is more important than anytime since the foundation of Mexico as an independent state. Decisions on future policies and a lot of luck are crucial for Obama and Calderon in 2009.

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